Christmas dinner in the Philippines is called Noche Buena following Hispanic custom, and is held towards midnight of 24 December. This usually comes after the entire family has attended the late evening Mass called the Misa de Gallo "Mass of the Rooster". This is usually served with queso de bola , literally a ball of edam cheese covered in a red wax. Other ubiquitous dishes are pasta and for dessert, fruit salad.
The dinner would usually be accompanied with tsokolate or hot cocoa, which is made with pure, locally grown cacao beans. Some families prefer tsokolate prepared from tablea or tablets of pressed cocoa powder that is either pure or slightly sweetened. Most of the food served on Noche Buena are fresh and usually prepared during the day of Christmas Eve.
Less well-off families would opt for a more economical Noche Buena ; the organising of even a simple gathering despite financial difficulties reflects the paramount importance in Filipino culture of familial and, by extension, communal unity. This focus on the family is common to all Filipino socio-economic classes and ethnic groups that observe Christmas in that most — if not all — members from branch or extended families in a clan are expected to partake of the Noche Buena.
Relatives living abroad, especially OFWs , are highly encouraged to return home for the occasion, as it is the most important Filipino Christian holiday of the year. Most families prefer to exchange Christmas presents right after the dinner, in contrast to the Western custom of opening presents on Christmas morning.
In Austria , Christmas Eve is the celebration of the end of the pre-Christmas fast Christmas is usually celebrated by only Christian a s. Christmas Eve is historically the day that the tree is decorated and lit with real candles, so that the Christkindl may visit. Christmas Day is a national holiday in Austria and most Austrians spend the day feasting with their family.
Fried carp, Sachertorte , and Christmas biscuits Lebkuchen and Weihnachtssterne are eaten, as are many other chocolate delicacies including edible Christmas ornaments. In the areas of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth e. This stems from the tradition of treating the pre-Christmas season as a time of fasting, broken at nightfall on the eve of Christmas Day.
A traditional Christmas meal in the Czech Republic is fried carp and potato salad which are eaten during Christmas dinner on the evening of 24 December. Many households also prepare a great variety of special Christmas biscuits to offer to visitors. These are prepared many days prior to the feast and take a long time to decorate, with the remainder usually ending up on the Christmas tree as decorations.
The meat is served with boiled potatoes some of which are caramelized, some roasted , red cabbage, and plenty of gravy. The main course is followed by a dessert of Risalamande , rice pudding served with cherry sauce or strawberry sauce, often with a whole almond hidden inside. The lucky finder of the almond is entitled to an extra present, the almond gift. It contains many different dishes, most of them typical for the season. The main dish is usually a large Christmas ham, which is eaten with mustard or bread along with the other dishes. Fish is also served often lutefish and gravlax or smoked salmon , and with the ham there are also different casseroles usually with potatoes, rutabaga swedes , or carrots.
In Germany , the primary Christmas dishes are roast goose and roast carp, although suckling pig or duck may also be served.
Typical side dishes include roast potatoes and various forms of cabbage such as kale , Brussels sprouts , and red cabbage. In some regions the Christmas dinner is traditionally served on Christmas Day rather than Christmas Eve. In this case, dinner on Christmas Eve is a simpler affair, consisting of sausages such as Bockwurst or Wiener and potato salad. Sweets and Christmas pastries are all but obligatory and include marzipan , spice bars Lebkuchen , several types of bread, and various fruitcakes and fruited breads such as Christstollen and Dresdener Stollen.
For Christmas dessert, Bejgli or poppy seed roll is a traditional Hungarian Christmas cake with poppy seeds paste and walnut paste fillings. The Icelandic Christmas dinner is eaten on Christmas Eve at The main dish varies much between families. The most common is probably Hamborgarhryggur , which is a kind of gammon steak. In Ireland, preparations for Christmas dinner begin on Christmas Eve.
People will boil the ham and may start to prepare vegetables. The Irish Christmas dinner which is eaten normally between 1. The older tradition, still followed by many people in Ireland, is to serve a duck or a goose at Christmas. The dinner usually consists of roast turkey although other poultry such as goose, chicken, duck, capon or pheasant are alternatives , sometimes with roast beef or ham or, to a lesser extent, pork.
The centrepiece is typically served with stuffing, gravy and sometimes forcemeat, pigs in blankets, cranberry sauce or redcurrant jelly, bread sauce, roast potatoes sometimes also boiled or mashed , vegetables usually boiled or steamed , particularly Brussels sprouts and carrots; dessert consists of Christmas pudding or plum pudding , sometimes mince pies, Christmas cake or trifle, with brandy butter or cream. Italian regional traditions are varied.
The primo is usually a kind of soup made with pasta usually filled pasta, like tortellini boiled in meat or capon broth. The secondo is very different in the two areas. In Northern Italy they usually eat poultry, often filled, or roasted or boiled and seasoned with sauces, like mostarda. In Southern Italy they eat the fried capitone eel, which is typical of Christmas Eve, because this is a fasting day. On Christmas Day they could eat roast lamb or fish. Christmas sweets are very varied and every region and sub region has its own. Generally speaking, in Northern Italy they eat a cake enriched with candied fruits, chocolate, raisins or pine nuts, known as panettone , followed by torrone enriched with cherries, chocolate, sweets and more , nougat and nuts.
In Southern Italy instead of one cake they serve many kinds of marzipan, biscuits, zeppole , cannoli , candied fruits, and fresh fruits. In the last few decades, panettone has become popular as a Christmas sweet all over Italy. Pandoro is also a very popular cake at Christmas and New Year, accompanied by a good Spumante. One typical Dutch tradition is that of 'gourmet,' [ citation needed ] an evening-long event where small groups of people sit together around a gourmet-set and use their own small frying pan to cook and season their own food in very small portions.
The host has prepared finely chopped vegetables and different types of meats , fish , prawns and shrimps. Everything is accompanied by different salads, fruits and sauces. The origin of gourmet lies most likely in the former Dutch colony Indonesia. The Dutch also enjoy more traditional Christmas-dinners, especially meats and game like roast beef , duck , rabbit , and pheasant.
In recent years, traditions from Anglo-Saxon countries have become increasingly popular, most notably the British-style turkey. The most common dish is svineribbe usually just ribbe , pork belly side prepared with seasoning salt and pepper , for proper crackling. Usually it is consumed together with boiled vegetables, sauerkraut, lingonberry jam, potatoes, gravy, beers and a few shots of akevitt.
The traditional lutefisk is also still eaten by some, but it is more commonly eaten at other occasions during the Christmas period. For dessert rice pudding is very popular, served with a raspberry sauce. Christmas Day is a national holiday in Poland and most Poles spend the day feasting with their family. The Christmas meal is elaborate, served in the evening on 24 December, offering large quantities of food. This Christmas Eve meal is called Wigilia. Then supper begins.
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The meal is meatless, honouring Catholic tradition. Many households also prepare a great variety of special Christmas dishes, typically numbering 12 in honor of the 12 apostles. Dishes include: stuffed carp, fried carp, herring in wine sauce, herring in cream sauce, fruit compote, vegetable salad, soup beetroot, mushroom, dried fruit over smashed chick peas, or fish with uszka , pierogi , peas and carrots, boiled potatoes except in Silesia, following a rhyme that states that bad luck ensues if one eats potatoes on Christmas Eve , mushroom cream sauce, sauerkraut, and makowiec poppy seed rolled cake.
Most households leave an empty plate at the table for an unexpected guest. Straw or hay is usually on the table to symbolise the manger. Some people place one scale from the carp in the wallet for financial success in the following year. During the season, pierniczki, or honey ginger cookies, are baked. Traditionally in Portugal the family gets together around the table on Christmas Eve to eat boiled dried-salted cod accompanied with boiled cabbage or greens varying with what they have in the garden left over, boiled potatoes, boiled onions, boiled eggs, and chickpeas.
Sometimes a simple dressing is made with onions, garlic or parsley. This meal is accompanied with generous amounts of olive oil. There are variations across the country and, traditionally, turkey  sometimes also pork in some regions is served for lunch on the 25th. Romanian food served during the holidays is a large multi-coursed meal, most of which consists of pork organs, muscle, and fat. This is mainly a symbolic gesture for St. Ignatius of Antioch. During Christmastime, Romanians bake or buy various special dishes, including desserts, sweets or fries.
Romanians most usually bake Cozonac , a cake made of flour, yolks , yeast and many other dependable ingredients, flavors, condiments and additions. There are several types of cozonac, with numerous recipes. Svidrigailov for murdering his wife?
Sonya for prostituting herself? The greedy pawnbroker whom Roskolnikov murdered? Or, to turn the question around: Who among us is not a criminal? Who among us has not attempted to impose his or her will on the natural order? Furthermore, we are made to understand that Roskolnikov's true punishment is not the sentence imposed on him by the court of law, but that imposed on him by his own actions: the psychological and spiritual hell he has created for himself; the necessary sentence of isolation from his friends and family; the extreme wavering between wanting to confess his crime, and desperately hoping to get away with it.
Indeed, the epilogue with its abbreviated pace and narrative distance feels like a reprieve for the reader as well as for the criminal. Finally, in Siberia, Roskolnikov has found space. There was much discussion about the novel's overwhelming power and rumors of people unable to finish it. Readers were shocked by Dostoyevsky's gruesome descriptions and enthralled by his use of dramatic tension. Perhaps the most virulent, and unexpected, criticism came from readers who felt that Dostoyevsky's portrait of the nihilist movement was an indictment of Russian youth and that its premise was inconceivable.
For more than a century, critics have argued about the book's message: Is it a political novel? A tale of morality? A psychological study? A religious epic? As Peter McDuff points out in his Introduction to the Penguin Classics edition, interpretations may be more revealing of the critic than of the text. In Roskolnikov, Dostoyevsky has created a man who is singular yet universal.
He is someone with whom we can sympathize, empathize, and pity, even if we cannot relate to his actions. He is a character we will remember forever, and whose story will echo throughout history. The family was poor, but their descent from 17th-century nobility entitled them to own land and serfs. Dostoyevsky's mother, Maria, was loving and religious; his father, Mikhail, tended toward alcoholism and violence, and his cruel behavior toward the peasants on their small estate resulted in his murder when Fyodor was eighteen years old.
Fyodor was the second of eight children. He was particularly close to his younger sister, Varvara, whose unfortunate marriage may have inspired Dostoyevsky's portraits of both Dunya and Sonya. His older brother, Mikhail, shared Dostoyevsky's literary and journalistic interests as well as his early social ideals. Together they attended secondary schools in Moscow, then the military academy in St. Petersburg, followed by service in the Russian army. Dostoyevsky broadened his education by reading extensively in an attempt to sharpen his literary skills.
As a youth he read and admired writers of all nationalities, including Dickens, Hugo, and Zola, and imitated some of Russia's literary geniuses, particularly Gogol. He also began a tortured acquaintance with Turgenev, which was to continue throughout his life. His first novel, Poor Folk , was published in This tale of a young clerk who falls haplessly in love with a woman he cannot possess led the literary lion Victor Belinsky to proclaim Dostoyevsky as the next Gogol. Dostoyevsky's entrance into St. Eventually, Dostoyevsky found another group to join, this time a circle of intellectual socialists run by Mikhail Petrashevsky.
Given the reactionary climate of the time, the Petrashevsky group's revolutionary ideas were both exciting and dangerous, and, although Dostoyevsky was far from being a revolutionary, his alignment with the faction brought him to the attention of the police.
In he and the rest of the Petrashevsky group were arrested for subversion. He spent the next five years at hard labor in Siberia, where his acquaintance with the criminal community would provide him with the themes, plots, and characters that distinguish many of his greatest works, including Crime and Punishment. Dostoyevsky returned to St. Petersburg in The next decade was filled with emotional and physical turmoil. In the deaths of his wife, Maria, and his beloved brother, Mikhail, deepened his debt and drove him to gambling.
He embarked on a doomed affair with Apollinaria Suslova, who vacillated between admiring and despising him. He also witnessed the dissolution of his literary journal and formed a disadvantageous relationship with an unscrupulous publisher. He married his stenographer, Anna Grigorievna Snitkin, with whom he fathered four children, and established himself as a leading conservative who often spoke out against revolutionary activity. In June of , Dostoyevsky attended a celebration of the great novelist, Pushkin, during which he delivered a speech in praise of the writer.
His words were met with great adulation, and the event marked what was perhaps the highest point of public approbation Dostoyevsky would ever attain. Little more than six months later, on January 28, , Dostoyevsky died of a lung hemorrhage. His funeral, attended by nearly thirty thousand mourners, was a national event. Which scenes strike you as being particularly suspenseful? How does he use description to enhance the turmoil in Roskolnikov's mind? What role does chance play in the development of the novel?
In which scenes does coincidence figure heavily in the outcome? Is Dostoyevsky interfering too much with the natural course of events in order to move his story along, or is he making a point about the randomness of life, free will, and divine intervention? Compare the characters of Roskolnikov, Luzhin, and Svidrigailov. How is each of these men a "villain," and to what extent are they guilty? How does each man face his guilt, and how does each suffer for it?
Compare the major female characters: Sonya, Dunya, Katerina Ivanovna. Do you think they are well-rounded characters or stereotypes? How does each figure in Roskolnikov's actions? Discuss the scene in which Roskolnikov meets Sonya in her room and he asks her to read the story of Lazarus. What makes this scene so effective? What does Roskolnikov mean when he tells Sonya she is "necessary" to him? No, it was myself I killed And as for the old woman, it was the Devil who killed her, not I. Bantam Dual-Language Books. Dover Literature. D'Artagnan Romances.
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A Christmas Carol (Enriched Classics) (Mass Market) | The Book Table
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