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Beak-trimmed chicks will initially peck less than non-trimmed chickens, which animal behavioralist Temple Grandin attributes to guarding against pain. Antibiotics have been used in poultry farming in mass quantities since , when the Food and Drug Administration FDA approved their use. Through testing, it was discovered that chickens who were fed a variety of vitamin B12 manufactured with the residue of a certain antibiotic grew 50 percent faster than those chickens who were fed B12 manufactured from a different source.

Upon this discovery, farmers transitioned from expensive animal proteins to comparatively inexpensive antibiotics and B Chickens were now reaching their market weight at a much faster rate and at a lower cost. With a growing population and greater demand on the farmers, antibiotics appeared to be an ideal and cost-effective way to increase the output of poultry.

Since this discovery, antibiotics have been routinely used in poultry production, but more recently have been the topic of debate secondary to the fear of bacterial antibiotic resistance. As of , over 70 percent of FDA approved antibiotics are utilized in modern, high production poultry farms to prevent, control, and treat disease.

More specifically in , the FDA speculated the most significant public health threat in regard to antimicrobial use in animals is the exposure of antimicrobial resistant bacteria to humans. Consumers are exposed to antibiotic resistance through consumption of poultry products that have prior exposure to resistant strains.

In poultry husbandry, the practice of using medically important antibiotics can select for resistant strains of bacteria, which are then transferred to consumers through poultry meat and eggs. For the 48 million individuals affected, antibiotics play a critical role in thwarting mortality rates.

When a gram-negative bacterial infection is suspected in a patient, one of the first-line options for treatment is in the fluoroquinolone family. This, along with penicillin , is one of the first families of antibiotics utilized in the broiler industry. If this first-line treatment is not successful, a stronger class of antibiotics is typically used, however, there is a limitation on how many classes are available, as well as which medications are available on hospital formularies. There is also more drug toxicity affiliated with second and third line antibiotic options.

This is one example why it is critical to keep as many first-line antibiotic options available for human use. Other issues are associated with duration and complexity of infection. On average, treatment for non-resistant bacteria is administered For example, of the two million people affected by resistant infections a year, 23, will die. Its purpose is to organize these organizations into a drug monitoring program for antibiotics utilized in animal feed with the goal of maintaining their medical efficacy. There are three branches which oversee humans, retail meat, and food animals.

This is the current business structure utilized almost universally in the broiler, or chicken bred for meat, industry.

Poultry farming - Types of poultry |

This also began in the s when antibiotics began to be utilized in livestock feed. Perdue is credited as the pioneer of this structure. They decide feed formulations, choice of antibiotic administration, and cover those costs in addition to veterinary services. They also own the poultry that is grown. They own the land and buildings where the poultry is grown, and are essentially caretakers for the poultry growth to the Integrators. There are about 20 of these companies in the U. There are two main surveys distributed to farmers by the federal government to aid in various regulations of the agricultural industry.

The main focus is finances of farming, production practices, and resource use. Seventeen total states are sampled every 5—6 years per livestock type, with the most recent surveys distributed to broiler farmers in and There was one question about utilization of antibiotics in poultry food or water, excluding use for illness treatment. In order to minimize and prevent any residues of antibiotics in chicken meat, any chickens given antibiotics are required to have a "withdrawal" period before they can be slaughtered.

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Samples of poultry at slaughter are randomly tested by the FSIS, and show a very low percentage of residue violations. Three consistently found in poultry are: Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli. One obstacle to gathering more comprehensive data on the use of antibiotics in feed is the majority of the poultry industry utilizes vertical integration. As a consequence, farmers are often unaware of what components go into the feed, including whether or not antibiotics are used.

The poultry industry also plays a large part in the United States economy, both in domestic purchasing and through international demand. This equates to an estimated retail value of 45 billion dollars in Both the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries have been lobbying against legislation that seeks to quell non-therapeutic antibiotic use in livestock since the first introduction of such legislation in Congress in the s. With antibiotic restrictions, integrators will bare the immediate costs of these changes, and would likely result in modified finances and contracts with growers.

Several policies have been proposed to improve data collection and transparency in livestock production. For example, the Delivering Antimicrobial Transparency in Animals DATA Act proposed the enactment of policies to acquire more accurate documentation of antibiotic use in growth promotion by farmers, drug manufacturers, and the FDA. Performing quality improvement in the process of livestock production is another focus. For example, the use of antibiotics in feed was banned in Sweden in with no compensatory increase in antibiotic usage in other sectors of production, proving that a ban can be successfully administered without unintended impacts on other categories.

Major producers in the poultry industry have also begun to make strides towards change, largely due to public concern over the widespread use of antibiotics in poultry. Some producers have started eliminating the use of antibiotics in order to produce and market chickens that may legally be labeled "antibiotic free". Consumer response was positive and in Perdue also began phasing out ionophores from its hatchery and began using the "antibiotic free" labels on its Harvestland, Simply Smart and Perfect Portions products.

As Guidance for Industry has been voluntarily accepted, it will be a violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to use antibiotics in livestock production for non-therapeutic purposes. However, as there is now a requirement for veterinary oversight and approval for antibiotics use, there is leeway in the interpretation of non-therapeutic purposes dependent on the situation. In this case, the veterinarian might choose to preventively treat these calves with an antimicrobial approved for prevention of that bacterial infection.

Poultry feed can also include roxarsone or nitarsone , arsenical antimicrobial drugs that also promote growth. This arsenic could be transmitted through run-off from the poultry yards. A study by the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA , however, is the organization responsible for the regulation of foods in America, and all samples tested were "far less than the Hormone use in poultry production is illegal in the United States. According to Consumer Reports , "1. Feces tend to leak from the carcass until the evisceration stage, and the evisceration stage itself gives an opportunity for the interior of the carcass to receive intestinal bacteria.

The skin of the carcass does as well, but the skin presents a better barrier to bacteria and reaches higher temperatures during cooking. Before , this was contained largely by not eviscerating the carcass at the time of butchering, deferring this until the time of retail sale or in the home. This gave the intestinal bacteria less opportunity to colonize the edible meat. The development of the "ready-to-cook broiler" in the s added convenience while introducing risk, under the assumption that end-to-end refrigeration and thorough cooking would provide adequate protection.

Irradiation has been proposed as a means of sterilizing chicken meat after butchering. The aerobic bacteria found in poultry housing can include not only E. These contaminants can contribute to dust that often causes issues with the respiratory systems of both the poultry and humans working in the environment. If bacterial levels in the poultry drinking water reach high levels, it can result in bacterial diarrhoea which can lead to blood poisoning should the bacteria spread from the damaged intestines.

Salmonella too can be stressful on poultry production. How it causes disease has been investigated in some detail. There is also a risk that crowded conditions in chicken farms will allow avian influenza bird flu to spread quickly. A United Nations press release states: "Governments, local authorities and international agencies need to take a greatly increased role in combating the role of factory-farming, commerce in live poultry, and wildlife markets which provide ideal conditions for the virus to spread and mutate into a more dangerous form Farming of chickens on an industrial scale relies largely on high protein feeds derived from soybeans ; in the European Union the soybean dominates the protein supply for animal feed, [] and the poultry industry is the largest consumer of such feed.

Changes in commodity prices for poultry feed have a direct effect on the cost of doing business in the poultry industry. For instance, a significant rise in the price of corn in the United States can put significant economic pressure on large industrial chicken farming operations. Poultry production requires regular control of excrement, and in many parts of the world, production operations, especially larger operations , need to comply with environmental regulations and protections. Different from mammalian excrement, in poultry and all birds urine and feces are excreted as a combined manure, and the result is both wetter and higher in concentrated nitrogen.

Waste can be managed wet, dry or by some combination. Wet management is particularly used in battery egg laying operations, where the waste is sluiced out with constantly or occasionally flowing water. Water is also used to clean the floors around nesting sites that are separate from open runs. Dry management particularly refers to dry litter such as sawdust that is removed as needed. Dry can also include open pasture where manure is absorbed by the existing soil and vegetation, but needs to be monitored dillegently so as to not overwhelm the ground capacity and lead to runoff and other pollution problems.

Both liquid sluicings and dry litter are used as organic fertilizers , but the wet bulk of liquids manure is harder to ship and is often limited to more local use, while the latter is easier to distribute in bulk and in commercial packaging. Mortality is a daily consideration for poultry farmers, and the carcasses must be disposed of in order to limit the spread of disease and the prevalence of pests.

There are a variety of methods of disposal, the most common being burial, composting , incineration , and rendering. Environmental concerns surrounding each of these methods deal with nutrient pollution into the surrounding soil and groundwater — because of these concerns, in many countries and US states the practice of burial in pits is heavily regulated or disallowed. Composting offers a safe and practical use for the organic material, while proper management of a composting site limits odor and presence of pests.

Government organizations, like the USDA, may offer financial assistance to farmers looking to begin utilizing environmentally friendly mortality solutions. Poultry workers experience substantially higher rates of illness and injury than manufacturing workers do on average. For the year , there were an estimated 1. High rates of carpal tunnel syndrome and other muscular and skeletal disorders are reported. Disinfectant chemicals and infectious bacteria are causes of respiratory illnesses, allergic reactions, diarrhea , and skin infections.

Poultry housing has been shown to have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers, ranging from a cough to chronic bronchitis. Workers are exposed to concentrated airborne particulate matter PM and endotoxins a harmful waste product of bacteria. In a conventional hen house a conveyor belt beneath the cages removes the manure. In a cage-free aviary system the manure coats the ground, resulting in the build-up of dust and bacteria over time.

Eggs are often laid on the ground or under cages in the aviary housing, causing workers to come close to the floor and force dust and bacteria into the air, which they then inhale during egg collection. Oxfam America reports that huge industrialized poultry operations are under such pressure to maximize profits that workers are denied access to restrooms.

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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated that in there were nearly sixteen billion chickens in the world, counting a total population of 15,,, In the annual number of chicken raised was estimated at 50 billion, with 6 billion raised in the European Union , over 9 billion raised in the United States and more than 7 billion in China. In , the average American consumed 20 pounds of chicken per year, but This increase in consumption and processing has led to many occupation-related illnesses. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of animal husbandry.

On land. Aquaculture Aquaponics Hydroponics Aeroponics. Government ministries Universities and colleges. Agriculture by country companies Biotechnology Livestock Meat industry Poultry farming.

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Main article: Free range. Main article: Yarding. Main article: Battery cage. Main article: Furnished cages.

Egg Production: Free Range

Main article: Broiler industry. Main article: Debeaking. Main article: Avian influenza. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. February Agriculture and Agronomy portal. CAB International. Retrieved October 3, There are more chickens in the world than any other bird. In fact, more than 50 billion chickens are reared annually as a source of food, for both their meat and their eggs. Chickens farmed for meat are called broiler chickens, whilst those farmed for eggs are called egg-laying hens.

National Center for Biotechnical Information. Retrieved February 28, Retrieved November 18, Archived from the original on September 28, Retrieved August 26, Retrieved October 5, The Ranger. Archived from the original on April 4, October Association between responses to heat stress and to cold-induced ascites". Poultry Science. Lions Grip. Retrieved July 6, British Poultry Science. Part I—Dust".

Retrieved December 5, Retrieved November 15, Canadian Federation of Humane Societies. Retrieved April 11, The realities of transitioning an agriculture supply chain". Appleby, Encyclopedia of Animal Science. Washington Post. September 3, Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved July 30, Mench; B. Hughes Poultry Behaviour and Welfare. B; et al. April Retrieved March 28, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Retrieved January 22, National Chicken Council. Retrieved June 21, Archived from the original on October 23, Kentucky Fried Cruelty. Archived from the original on February 13, The Washington Post. Retrieved June 12, New Scientist. Cutaneous nociceptors in the chicken beak. Animal Welfare. Applied Animal Ethology. Neuroscience Letters. Beak trimming in poultry. Pain Syndromes in Neurology. Fields, Butterworths, London, p.

Australian Veterinary Journal. Animals in Translation. New York, NY: Scribner. In Defense of Animals. Delivery not available. Pickup not available. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. See our disclaimer. Specifications Publisher Springer Us. Customer Reviews. Write a review. See any care plans, options and policies that may be associated with this product.

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