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Some papers on Kurtoep include Hyslop a, b, The study of the indigenous Tibetan grammatical tradition, while of course offering much insight into the language, is a field in itself. Therefore, no attempt to comprehensivly discuss the Tibetan genres of Sum rtags and Brda gsar rnying will be made in this bibliography. Studies of the Tibetan grammatical tradition include Inaba , Miller , and Verhagen , and It remains a discipline in its infancy.

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Studies concerning the influence of Tibetan on Tokharian include Sapir and Ivanov The two categories that appear relatively well defined are "Old Tibetan" and "Modern Literary Tibetan". The former, "Old Tibetan" consists of imperial stone inscriptions on the one hand and Dunhuang documents and wood slips on the other hand. The latter, "Modern Literary Tibetan" may be defined as writing in Tibetan after the communist takeover of Tibet, or generically as the form of writing found in newspapers and modern secular publications such as novels and short stories.

It is convenient to define "Classical Tibetan" negatively as all forms of Written Tibetan not belonging to these two categories. The first published Tibetan grammar was that of de Koros, this was translated into German and slightly amended by Schmidt.

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Schmidt also has a Russian version. Foucaux learned Tibetan using de Koros materials but came to write his own grammar. Cordier is one of the few grammars to incorporate the various studies of Schiefner. Beyer's grammar is insufficient in various respects. Beyer cites neither his predecessors nor his textual examples. He contributes little new, and muddles much of his sources. Other Tibetan grammars include: Inaba , Hahn , Hodge , Bskal bzang vgyur med , , Wilson , and Schwieger Wolfenden discusses the 'prefix' m- used with nominals. Uray's papers on duplication , -e , and the diminutive Zhang Jichuang describes Classical Tibetan lexical morphology from the 'word family' perspective.

Anton Schiefner and Michael Hahn have insightful studies of how the plurals -dag and -rnams differ. Hoshi explores the use of the polar question marker e arguing that it was borrowed into Classical Tibetan from eastern Tibetan dialects. Lyovin makes some desultory remarks on the internal reconstruction of the verbal system, which in some ways presage the more thoroughgoing and more influential work of Coblin from a few years later. Coblin undertakes an internal reconstruction of Tibetan that has been highly influential.

His internal reconstruction eliminates all vowel and auslaut alternations from the verb stems. Thre is an excellent article on zero-anaphora in Classical Tibetan by Andersen , which unfortunately seems not to have been noticed much by other researchers. Andersen discusses in particular the use of -pa-dang to block zero-anaphora. He also discusses constructions which are comparable to the passive and anti-passive. The syntactic effect of converbial markers has also been adressed by Abel Zadoks and Felix Haller from the perspective of 'switch-reference'.

Unfortunately none of the studies of Zadoks have been published, the handouts he presented at various conferences in the early s are however invaluable. The study of Haller is mostly devoted to Shigatse dialect. In his treatment of Classical Tibetan based on the Mila rnam thar he acknowledges neither the previous work of Andersen and Zadoks, nor does he present sufficient examples to demonstrate his claims.

Beer gives more in depth treatment of switch reference in Classical Tibetan. Oetke discusses the use of vgyur , byed , and yin as auxiliary verbs, in particular with reference to conditional clauses in Buddhist literature. He suggests that the main distinction is one of 'control' versus 'non-control'. His seems to be the earliest discussion of this important distinction in any variety of Tibetan. Sato discusses ergativity in Classical Tibetan.

On the same topic is the disastrous article by Saxena which must be read together with the response to it by Dempsey Nagano discusses two examples one from Old TIbetan and one from Classical where he believes the suffix -kyis marks the patient of a transitive clause. He has another paper about this too somewhere.

Hoffmann has a nice discussion of -gis as a converbial marker. He finds that it marks the future, primarily of first persons, whether singular or plural. Roesler discusses the grammar of the Dpe chos of Po-to-ba Rin-chen-gsal. Hoshi discusses existential verbs in the Rgyal rabs gsal ba'i me long. Pre-modern dictionaries including Manchu-Tibetan, and Sanskrit-Tibetan dictionaries have been excluded.

Domenico da Fano , compiled between and Because this dictionary reportedly carries indication of pronunciation it could be of significant interest for Tibetan historical phonology. A Tibetan Italian dictionary was compiled by F. Francesco Orazio della Penna , a student of da Fano. The text of this work was translated into English and considerably mangled.

The English version became the first published Tibetan dictionary Schroeter but the original remains unpublished. Schmidt also prepared a Tibetan-Russian dictionary, which however I have not examined. A biography of Schmidt is provided in Babingen Tibetan script equivalents given for each entry, and differences of dialect are reported; information on verb syntax or stem variation occasionally reported. This dictionary was intended for practical use in the colloquial language. This is the first Tibetan dictionary of real caliber, and indeed as a work of lexicography is unrivaled to this day.

In the history of Tibetan lexicography special place must be afforded to the word of Chos kyi grags pa This is the first indigenous Tibetan dictionary although the author was actually ethnically a Mongolian to be organized alphabetically. Chos kyi grags pa received the aid of Dge 'dun chos 'phel in compiling the work.

Until recently this was used very widely be Tibetan as well as Western scholars. A number of lexeme from this dictionary are discussed in Wilhelm, F. Gould and Richardson produced an interesting lexical resource. In a series which included Tibetan Verbs, and Tibetan Sentences. Each of syllables is numbered. Compound words are listed under each heading, and crossreferenced to each of their members. A phonetic transcription is given. Intransiive and transitive verbs are marked, as well as honorifics and high honorifics.

A real contribution to Tibetan etymology and word analysis which has not be properly followed up on. For a similar work see Tshe dbang rnam rgyal [] A number of dictionaries can be mentioned all of which serve more or less the same function and are of roughly equal quality, i. The luminous figure of early twentieth century Tibetology, George Nicholas de Roerich, left a long manuscript Tibetan-English dictionary as part of his Nachlass. It was edited and translated into Russian to form a twenty volume Tibetan-English and Russian dictionary. The size of the work and erudition of its author recommend it.

Unfortunately not citing any sources it is not a methodological improvement on its peers, and is now rather difficult to obtain. A number of other Tibetan-Tibetan or Tibetan-Chinese dictionaries were published in Tibet during the fifities, unfortunately they have all so far evaded me and it seems unproductive to share the inadaquet bibliographic scrapes which I have managed to collect. A Tibetan-Tibetan dictionary of lasting importance is Tsan chung This is an excellent dictionary, with carefully written definitions. The cross references are excellent, and the handling of verbs is more sophisticated and reliable than in most dictionaries.

Its relatively small size means that obscure words are not to be found, though it does have a strength in colloquial words and eastern dialect words.

The examples appear to have been invented by the authors. While not a contribution to the scientific description of the Tibetan language, for a dictionary of its nature and size it is the best that can be achieved. Western students of Tibetan who do not yet know most basic vocabulary and are making the transition from using bilingual to monolingual dictionaries will find a particular asset in this work.

It has been unfortunateley somewhat upstaged by its larger but less carefully edited sucessor, to be treated in the next paragraph. The dictionary which has become the current unrivaled standard is that of Zhang It is certainly a very large and useful work, but its merit is somewhat overrated. The definitions are so laconic as to sometimes be unintelligible, in particular words close in meaning are poorly differentiated. As usual, the compilers do not cite their examples or provide information on their sources. They have also haphazardly included geographical and biographical information properly outside the scope of a dictionary.

This work has been the subject of an translation into English Skorupski though so far only until the letter nya, and supplement of more recent words has been compiled by Hackett The handling of tshad ma terminology in Zhang has been criticized by Bkra shis bzang po The verb entries have been excerpted and published separately as Li yung khrang Hackett a is a dictionary of verb stems and verbal collocations with lexical semantic information and paradigm example sentences taken from classical literature using techniques of corpus linguistics.

Hill is a dictionary of verb stems collected from previous sources. Hill b provides an overview of Old Tibetan synchronic phonology. Contributions to particular issues in Old Tibetan phonology include Beckwith , Che , , Dragunov , , and Hill b, , , A newly discovered source for Tibetan historical phonology is a collection of Dunhuang texts which are the transcripts of oral teachings, and give information about the pronunciation of Tibetan in medieval Dunhuang van Schaik Nancy Caplow has reconstructed stress for proto-Tibetan Caplow Temple explores the conditioning of palatalization in Old Tibetan.

Hill a treats changes in the inflection of the verb for 'to write', Jacques extends the same argument to a further group of verbs. Hill a discusses the case marker -las after verbal nouns. Hill b discusses case grammar. Jacques speculates about the history of verbal morphology. To date only one work has been published which can be properly called a dictionary of Old Tibetan, this being Btsan lha ngag dbang tshul khrims This work carefully quotes and cites its sources, however not specifically enough to afford confirmation.

Citations have been culled from Dunhuang texts as well as the Bdra gsar rnying, and commentarial literature. Thus it exceeds the scope of Old Tibetan per se, but this only adds to its utility. Despite the very high quality of this work, which exceeds that of most scholarship emmiting from the PRC, in my view a comprehensive dictionary-cum-thesaurus of Old Tibetan texts making specific citations is a remaining desideratum of both Tibetan and Tibeto-Burman studies.

Although not dictionaries as such the glossaries of Li and Coblin , Richardson , and F. Thomas should be mentioned as lexicographical resources for Old Tibetan. Although the last is now quite outdated.

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A number of Old Tibetan texts have been fully indexed, though without any definitions or commentary in Choix 3 and 4, and in Takeuchi , and Although, Takeuchi does contain a short glossary of terms, and a variety of invaluable lexicographical data and discussion throughout. There is an indigenous tradition of providing glossaries of Old Tibetan words and phrases in Classical Tibetan, such works are extensively employed by Btsan lha ngag dbang tshul khrims , Mimaki has made two studies of one of the earliest by Dbu pa blo gsal Mimaki , An overview of this literature in general is provided in an article by Manfred Taube.

In the later part of the 20th century one of the most active figures in Tibetan lexicography has been Melvyn C. His work is especially strong in political and military terminology. His first dictionary was published in It is very positively reviewed by Wylie Goldstein later compiled an English-Tibetan dictionary.

In he published a dictionary which is ostensibly a new edition dictionary though many times its size. Although ostensibly centered around the language of contemporary news and literature, because the work incorporates other dictionaries more or less in totol, this work even contains Old Tibetan vocabulary.


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As the first place to turn for a word it has its place. Although this work is useful for reading texts, especially modern, because of its large vocabulary, it fails to contribute to scientific lexicography. Hackett edited and oversaw the compiling of a dictionary of neologisms compiled from PRC newspapers. This dictionary contains words not already in Zhang , and is intended to serve as a supplement to it.

Inevitably this research focused on the languages of border regions either in the far West or East. Subsequent work on spoken Tibetan languages has focused above all on Lhasa dialect, the 'lingua franca' of Central Tibet and the Tibetan exile community. These three forms of language are often confused in the literature.

Recent work on a number of other dialects has filled out the picture. Bonnerjea offers a pioneering contribution in the comparative phonology of Tibetic languages. His efforts at comparative morphology, entirely constrained by the straight-jacket of Latinate terminology, is however disappointing Bonnerjea This massive project, headed for many years by Roland Bielmeier, is documenting the exact phonetic realisation of Tibetan-derived vocabulary in dozens of Tibetan languages in five countries.

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Wang Yao treats the phonetic evolution of the word zla-ba 'moon', and the phonetic evolution of zl- more generally, in several dialects. In the same year, Denwood treated the same set of questions. Jacques b has an article showing that what has been argued to be an archaism in the Western Tibetan vowel system is in fact an innovation. Grammars of Ladakhi include Francke [] , Koshal , , Norman Tournadre and Zeisler treat specific topics in Ladakhi grammar.

Sandberg includes a long vocabulary of Ladakhi words. Rebecca Norman is compiling a Ladakhi dictionary which will exceed all previous efforts in scope. Works dealing with social linguistics include Zeisler Works that I have to read before evaluating include Dey and Koshal Because many researchers do not rigorously distinguish the speech of the city of Lhasa per se from other forms of speech dubbed 'Lhasa Tibetan' it is convenient to treat Lhasa dialect together with the other dialects of Central Tibet which have been referred to as 'Lhasa' or generically as 'Central' Tibetan.

In addition the lingua franca of the Tibetan exile often all called 'Lhasa' Tibetan is covered in this section. A number of works treat 'Central Tibetan' without referring more specifically to dialect. Grammars of 'Central Tibetan include Sandberg , and Roerich and Phuntshok both of which include fairly extensive vocabularies. Early handbooks include Lewin , Sandberg , and Henderson , Bell A good discussion of the previous literature is in Haller's Shigatse grammar, which would almost be worth just translating here.

Handbooks and Manuals include those of the Changs, Goldstein and Nornang , working with one of the same informants. Hu Tan , which is very popular in China. Hoshi is a colloquial Tibetan-Japanese verb dictionary. Kitamura and Nagano is a Tibetan Japanese dictionary which I have not yet seen. Kitamura has a short grammar. Hoshi M. There is a longer grammar in Chinese by Wang Zhijing A Tibetan to Chinese dictionary of Lhasa dialect which i also haven't seen is yu et al.

The phonology of Lhasa dialect, in particular the analysis of tone has been rather controversial. Sprigg , , The retention and over-application of -bC- word internally has been studied by Chang and Chang and Shirai Pao et al. Tang and Kong discuss vowels, vowel length and tone.

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He suffers from the Chinese obssesion of giving the "same" sentence in several dialects. Zhou Li teaches how to read Tibetan script in the pronunciation of Lhasa. His description of phonology closely matches that of Tournadre, with a more detailed treatment of tone and tone sandhi. Zhu tuo by Tshul-khrims-blo-gros Book 1 edition published in in Chinese and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Qian shi jin sheng lun by Tshul-khrims-blo-gros Book 3 editions published between and in Tibetan and Chinese and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide A study on Buddhist interpretation of rebirth and transmigration based on various incidental experiences.

Hui yu lian deng by Tshul-khrims-blo-gros Book 3 editions published in in Chinese and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Hui deng zhi guang by Tshul-khrims-blo-gros Book in Chinese and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Wo men wei he bu xing fu by Tshul-khrims-blo-gros Book 1 edition published in in Chinese and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide.

Lun hui de gu shi : zai qian shi jin sheng, fa xian sheng ming liu zhuan de mi mi by Tshul-khrims-blo-gros Book 1 edition published in in Chinese and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Audience Level. Related Identities. Associated Subjects. Alternative Names. Tibetan 25 Chinese