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History of computing in Poland This article describes the history of computing in Poland. The production started in —; the last series of Odra computers—the Odra —consisted of three models: the Odra , , the The model had a 3. History of computer hardware in Yugoslavia Computer systems in the Soviet Union History of computing in Romania History of computer hardware in Bulgaria. He directed the team that invented and implemented FORTRAN , the first used high-level programming language, was the inventor of the Backus—Naur form , a used notation to define formal language syntax , he did research into the function-level programming paradigm, presenting his findings in his influential Turing Award lecture "Can Programming Be Liberated from the von Neumann Style?

He retired in and died at his home in Ashland, Oregon on March 17, Backus grew up in nearby Wilmington, Delaware , he studied at The Hill School in Pottstown and was not a diligent student. After entering the University of Virginia to study chemistry, he quit and was conscripted into the U. Army , he began medical training at Haverford College and, during an internship at a hospital, he was diagnosed with a cranial bone tumor, removed. After moving to New York City he trained as a radio technician and became interested in mathematics , he graduated from Columbia University with a bachelor's degree in and a master's degree in , both in mathematics, joined IBM in During his first three years, he worked on the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator.

In Backus developed the language Speedcoding , the first high-level language created for an IBM computer, to aid in software development for the IBM computer. Programming was difficult at this time, in Backus assembled a team to define and develop Fortran for the IBM computer. Fortran was the first high-level programming language. It was a formal notation able to describe any context-free programming language, was important in the development of compilers.

A few deviations from this approach were tried—notably in Lisp and APL—but by the s, following the development of automated compiler generators such as yacc , Backus—Naur context-free specifications for computer languages had become quite standard; this contribution helped Backus win the Turing Award in Sometimes viewed as Backus's apology for creating Fortran, this paper did less to garner interest in the FP language than to spark research into functional programming in general; when Backus publicized the function-level style of programming, his message was misunderstood as being the same as traditional functional programming style languages.

FP was inspired by Kenneth E. An FP interpreter was distributed with the 4. Backus spent the latter part of his career developing FL, a successor to FP. FL was an internal IBM research project, development of the language stopped when the project was finished. Only a few papers documenting it remain, the source code of the compiler described in them was not made public. FL was at odds with functional programming languages being developed in the s, most of which were based on the lambda calculus and static typing systems instead of, as in APL, the concatenation of primitive operations.

Many of the language's ideas have now been implemented in versions of the J programming language, Iverson's successor to APL. Backus ". New York Times. IBM produces and sells computer hardware and software, provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is a major research organization, holding the record for most U.

IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable markets. In , IBM announced that it would go " fabless ", continuing to design semiconductors , but offloading manufacturing to GlobalFoundries. In the s, technologies emerged that would form the core of International Business Machines. Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in The five companies had offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York. They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards.

Thomas J. Watson , Sr. Having learned Patterson's pioneering business practices, Watson proceeded to put the stamp of NCR onto CTR's companies, he implemented sales conventions, "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and had an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker". Watson never liked the clumsy hyphenated name "Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company" and on February 14, chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines".

By most of the subsidiaries had been merged into one company, IBM. In , IBM's tabulating equipment enabled organizations to process unprecedented amounts of data, its clients including the U. Government, during its first effort to maintain the employment records for 26 million people pursuant to the Social Security Act , the tracking of persecuted groups by Hitler's Third Reich through the German subsidiary Dehomag. In , Thomas Watson , Sr.

In , he stepped down after 40 years at the company helm, his son Thomas Watson, Jr. In , the company demonstrated the first practical example of artificial intelligence when Arthur L. In , IBM employees and computers helped. A year it moved its corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, New York ; the latter half of the s saw IBM continue its support of space exploration, participating in the Gemini flights, Saturn flights and lunar mission.

Together the. Executable In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes referred to as an executable, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful. The exact interpretation depends upon the use - while "instructions" is traditionally taken to mean machine code instructions for a physical CPU, in some contexts a file containing bytecode or scripting language instructions may be considered executable.

Executable files can be hand-coded in machine language, although it is far more convenient to develop software as source code in a high-level language that can be understood by humans. In some cases, source code might be specified in assembly language instead, which remains human-readable while being associated with machine code instructions; the high-level language is compiled into either an executable machine code file or a non-executable machine-code object file of some sort.

Several object files are linked to create the executable. Object files, executable or not, are in a container format, such as Executable and Linkable Format ; this structures the generated machine code, for example dividing it into sections such as the. In order to be executed by the system, an executable file must conform to the system's application binary interface. Most a file is executed by loading the file into memory and jumping to the start of the address space and executing from there, but in more complicated interfaces executable files have additional metadata , specifying a separate entry point.

Executable files also include a runtime system, which implements runtime language features and interactions with the operating system, notably passing arguments and returning an exit status, together with other startup and shutdown features such as releasing resources like file handles. For C, this is done by linking in the crt0 object, which contains the actual entry point and does setup and shutdown by calling the runtime library.

Executable files thus contain significant additional machine code beyond that directly generated from the specific source code. In some cases it is desirable to omit this, for example for embedded systems development or to understand how compilation and loading work. In C this can be done by omitting the usual runtime, instead explicitly specifying a linker script, which generates the entry point and handles startup and shutdown, such as calling main to start and returning exit status to kernel at end. Computer data storage Computer data storage called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

It is a core function and fundamental component of computers; the central processing unit of a computer is. In practice all computers use a storage hierarchy, which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away; the fast volatile technologies are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage".

In the Von Neumann architecture , the CPU consists of two main parts: The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit; the former controls the flow of data between the CPU and memory, while the latter performs arithmetic and logical operations on data. Without a significant amount of memory, a computer would be able to perform fixed operations and output the result, it would have to be reconfigured to change its behavior. This is acceptable for devices such as desk calculators, digital signal processors, other specialized devices. Von Neumann machines differ in having a memory in which they store their operating instructions and data.

Such computers are more versatile in that they do not need to have their hardware reconfigured for each new program, but can be reprogrammed with new in-memory instructions. Most modern computers are von Neumann machines. A modern digital computer represents data using the binary numeral system. Text, pictures and nearly any other form of information can be converted into a string of bits, or binary digits, each of which has a value of 1 or 0; the most common unit of storage is the byte , equal to 8 bits.

A piece of information can be handled by any computer or device whose storage space is large enough to accommodate the binary representation of the piece of information, or data. For example, the complete works of Shakespeare , about pages in print, can be stored in about five megabytes with one byte per character. Data are encoded by assigning a bit pattern to digit, or multimedia object.

Many standards exist for encoding. By adding bits to each encoded unit, redundancy allows the computer to both detect errors in coded data and correct them based on mathematical algorithms. Errors occur in low probabilities due to random bit value flipping, or "physical bit fatigue ", loss of the physical bit in storage of its ability to maintain a distinguishable value, or due to errors in inter or intra-computer communication. A random bit flip is corrected upon detection. A bit, or a group of malfunctioning physical bits is automatically fenced-out, taken out of use by the device, replaced with another functioning equivalent group in the device, where the corrected bit values are restored; the cyclic redundancy check method is used in communications and storage for error detection.

A detected error is retried. Data compression methods allow in many cases to represent a string of bits by a shorter bit string and reconstruct the original string when needed; this utilizes less storage for many types of data at the cost of more computation. Analysis of trade-off between storage cost saving and costs of related computations and possible delays in data availability is done before deciding whether to keep certain data compressed or not. For security reasons certain types of data may be kept encrypted in storage to prevent the possibility of unauthorized information reconstruction from chunks of storage snapshots; the lower a storage is in the hierarchy, the lesser its bandwidth and the greater its access latency is from the CPU.

This traditional division of storage to primary, secondary and off-line storage is guided by cost per bit. In contemporary usage, "memory" is semiconductor storage read-write random-access memory DRAM or other forms of fast but temporary storage. Memory has been called core memory, main memory, real storage or internal memory. Primary storage referred to as memory, is the only one directly accessible to the CPU. The CPU continuously reads instructions executes them as required.

Any data operated on is stored there in uniform manner. Early computers used delay lines, Williams tubes, or rotating magnetic drums as primary storage. By , those unreliable methods were replaced by magnetic core memory. Core memory remained dominant until the s, when advances in integrated circuit technology allowed semiconductor memory to become economically competitive; this led to modern random-access memo.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Glossary of computer science Category v t e. Not to be confused with Compiler compiler. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: LR parser. Main article: LL parser. Main article: metacompiler. Main article: Just-in-time compilation. Main article: Intermediate language. Main article: Code generation compiler.

Compiler Construction for Digital Computers by David Gries - lulasedyxuxi.gq

This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Computers Then and Now. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, 15 1 :1—7, January. Hart and M. Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 29 May Practical Translators for LR k Languages. PhD dissertation, MIT, Roberts ACM, 4, No. Lewis, R.

Stearns, "Syntax directed transduction," focs, pp. Earley, "An efficient context-free parsing algorithm" , Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery , 13 , Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing : — August Compiler Basics. Retrieved 11 May Knuth, "Backus Normal Form vs. Backus Naur Form", Commun. ACM, 7 12 —, Archived from the original on 21 September Retrieved 30 June Archived from the original on 10 January Retrieved 3 August CS1 maint: Archived copy as title link Dennis M.

Program optimization. In Mark I. Halpern and Christopher J. Shaw, editors, Annual Review in Automatic Programming, volume 5, pages — Pergamon Press, New York, Allen and John Cocke. Graph theoretic constructs for program control flow analysis. Control flow analysis. A basis for program optimization. In Proc. IFIP Congress 71, pages — North-Holland, A catalogue of optimizing transformations. Rustin, editor, Design and Optimization of Compilers, pages 1— Prentice-Hall, Interprocedural data flow analysis. IFIP Congress 74, pages — A method for determining program data relationships.

In Andrei Ershov and Valery A.

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Nepomniaschy, editors, Proc. Springer-Verlag, A program data flow analysis procedure. Communications of the ACM, 19 3 —, March Schwartz, Programming Languages and their Compilers. Peephole optimization. Kenneth Parsing algorithms. LL Recursive descent Tail recursive Pratt parser. Combinator Chart Earley. Categories : Compilers History of software History of computer science Parsing algorithms. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: Archived copy as title Use dmy dates from February All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January Articles needing additional references from January All articles needing additional references Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from February Incomplete lists from October Revision History.

History of personal computers. Related Images. YouTube Videos. Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. Parts from four early computers, The Ishango bone is thought to be a Paleolithic tally stick. Time-sharing computer terminal s connected to central computers, such as the TeleVideo ASCII character mode smart terminal pictured here, were sometimes used before the advent of the PC. Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie.

Unix time-sharing at the University of Wisconsin , Computer science is the study of processes that interact with data and that can be represented as data in the form of programs. It enables the use of algorithms to manipulate, store, and communicate digital information. Ada Lovelace is often credited with publishing the first algorithm intended for processing on a computer.

Al-Jazari 's programmable automata CE. Gottfried Leibniz , who speculated that human reason could be reduced to mechanical calculation.

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This photo has been artificially darkened, obscuring details such as the women who were present and the IBM equipment in use. The history of the graphical user interface, understood as the use of graphic icons and a pointing device to control a computer, covers a five-decade span of incremental refinements, built on some constant core principles. The first prototype of a computer mouse , as designed by Bill English from Engelbart's sketches. Videoconferencing on NLS Xerox Star workstation introduced the first commercial GUI operating system.

The Xerox Alto had an early graphical user interface. The history of laptops describes the efforts—primarily begun in the s and s—to build small, portable personal computers that combine the components, inputs, outputs and capabilities of a desktop computer in a small chassis. An opened Osborne 1 computer, ready for use. The keyboard sits on the inside of the lid. The Atari was a popular home video game console in the late s and early s. Pictured is the four-switch model from — An Atari game joystick controller, which also had a button.

Intellivision was a home console system introduced in This article describes the history of computing in Poland. MERA , Computer class at Chkalovski Village School No. Elbrus computer in Moscow's Polytechnic Museum. The BK , the most widely-produced Soviet home computer. Being socialist meant that strict technology import rules and regulations shaped the development of computer history in the country, unlike in the Western world. A computer program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer.

A computer requires programs to function. Lovelace's diagram from Note G, the first published computer algorithm. Switches for manual input on a Data General Nova 3, manufactured in the mids.

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In the s, computer programs were stored on perforated paper tape. Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. An example of primary storage. When used within a robotic tape library , it is classified as tertiary storage instead. A hard disk drive with protective cover removed. Earley parsers are appealing because they can parse all context-free languages reasonably efficiently.

Backus's work was based on the Post canonical system devised by Emil Post. However, Donald Knuth argued that BNF should rather be read as Backus—Naur form , [25] and that has become the commonly accepted usage. Both EBNF and ABNF are widely used to specify the grammar of programming languages, as the inputs to parser generators, and in other fields such as defining communication protocols. A parser generator generates the lexical-analyser portion of a compiler. It is a program that takes a description of a formal grammar of a specific programming language and produces a parser for that language.

That parser can be used in a compiler for that specific language. The parser detects and identifies the reserved words and symbols of the specific language from a stream of text and returns these as tokens to the code which implements the syntactic validation and translation into object code. This second part of the compiler can also be created by a compiler-compiler using a formal rules-of-precedence syntax-description as input.

The first compiler-compiler to use that name was written by Tony Brooker in and was used to create compilers for the Atlas computer at the University of Manchester, including the Atlas Autocode compiler. However it was rather different from modern compiler-compilers, and today would probably be described as being somewhere between a highly customisable generic compiler and an extensible-syntax language.

The name 'compiler-compiler' was far more appropriate for Brooker's system than it is for most modern compiler-compilers, which are more accurately described as parser generators. It is almost certain that the "Compiler Compiler" name has entered common use due to Yacc rather than Brooker's work being remembered. The Multics project, a joint venture between MIT and Bell Labs , was one of the first to develop an operating system in a high level language. B was the immediate ancestor of C. It was designed and implemented in by a team with William M. McKeeman , James J.

Horning , and David B. Some subsequent versions of XPL used on University of Toronto internal projects utilized an SLR 1 parser, but those implementations have never been distributed. Yacc is a parser generator loosely, compiler-compiler , not to be confused with lex , which is a lexical analyzer frequently used as a first stage by Yacc. Yacc was developed by Stephen C.

Johnson worked on Yacc in the early s at Bell Labs. Because Yacc was the default compiler generator on most Unix systems, it was widely distributed and used. Derivatives such as GNU Bison are still in use. The compiler generated by Yacc requires a lexical analyzer.

Lexical analyzer generators, such as lex or flex are widely available. Metacompilers differ from parser generators, taking as input a program written in a metalanguage. Their input consists grammar analyzing formula and code production transforms that output executable code. Many can be programmed in their own metalanguage enabling them to compile themselves, making them self-hosting extensible language compilers. Many metacompilers build on the work of Dewey Val Schorre. It also translated to one of the earliest instances of a virtual machine.

Lexical analysis was performed by built token recognizing functions:. Quoted strings in syntax formula recognize lexemes that are not kept. Tree transform operations in the syntax formula produce abstract syntax trees that the unparse rules operate on. The unparse tree pattern matching provided peephole optimization ability. CWIC , described in a ACM publication is a third generation Schorre metacompiler that added lexing rules and backtracking operators to the grammar analysis.

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CWIC also provided binary code generation into named code sections. Single and multipass compiles could be implemented using CWIC. Later generations are not publicly documented.

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One important feature would be the abstraction of the target processor instruction set, generating to a pseudo machine instruction set, macros, that could be separately defined or mapped to a real machine's instructions. Optimizations applying to sequential instructions could then be applied to the pseudo instruction before their expansion to target machine code. A cross compiler runs in one environment but produces object code for another.

Cross compilers are used for embedded development, where the target computer has limited capabilities.

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ZCODE is a register-based intermediate language. Compiler optimization is the process of improving the quality of object code without changing the results it produces. The developers of the first FORTRAN compiler aimed to generate code that was better than the average hand-coded assembler, so that customers would actually use their product. In one of the first real compilers, they often succeeded.

Later compilers, like IBM's Fortran IV compiler, placed more priority on good diagnostics and executing more quickly, at the expense of object code optimization. Frances E. Allen , working alone and jointly with John Cocke , introduced many of the concepts for optimization. Allen's paper, Program Optimization, [38] introduced the use of graph data structures to encode program content for optimization. Her paper with Cocke, A Catalogue of Optimizing Transformations , [42] provided the first description and systematization of optimizing transformations.

Her and papers on interprocedural data flow analysis extended the analysis to whole programs. This work established the feasibility and structure of modern machine- and language-independent optimizers. Schwartz , published early in , devoted more than pages to optimization algorithms.

It included many of the now familiar techniques such as redundant code elimination and strength reduction. Peephole optimization is a very simple but effective optimization technique. It was invented by William M. This type of optimizer depended, in this case, upon knowledge of 'weaknesses' in the standard IBM COBOL compiler, and actually replaced or patched sections of the object code with more efficient code. The replacement code might replace a linear table lookup with a binary search for example or sometimes simply replace a relatively 'slow' instruction with a known faster one that was otherwise functionally equivalent within its context.

This technique is now known as " Strength reduction ". Modern compilers typically provide optimization options, so programmers can choose whether or not to execute an optimization pass. When a compiler is given a syntactically incorrect program, a good, clear error message is helpful. From the perspective of the compiler writer, it is often difficult to achieve. It was designed to give better error messages than IBM's Fortran compilers of the time. In addition, WATFIV was far more usable, because it combined compiling, linking and execution into one step, whereas IBM's compilers had three separate components to run.

Conway and Thomas R. Just in time compilation JIT is the generation of executable code on-the-fly or as close as possible to its actual execution, to take advantage of run time metrics or other performance enhancing options. Most modern compilers have a lexer and parser that produce an intermediate representation of the program. The intermediate representation is a simple sequence of operations which can be used by an optimizer and a code generator which produces instructions in the machine language of the target processor.

Because the code generator uses an intermediate representation, the same code generator can be used for many different high level languages. There are many possibilities for the intermediate representation. Three-address code , also known as a quadruple or quad is a common form, where there is an operator, two operands, and a result. Two-address code or triples have a stack to which results are written, in contrast to the explicit variables of three-address code. Rosen , Mark N. Wegman , and F. Kenneth Zadeck , researchers at IBM in the s. A new variable is created rather than modifying an existing one.

SSA simplifies optimization and code generation. Sethi—Ullman algorithm or Sethi-Ullman numbering is a method to minimise the number of registers needed to hold variables. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Home FAQ Contact. History of compiler construction Wikipedia open wikipedia design. Glossary of computer science Category v t e.

Not to be confused with Compiler compiler. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: LR parser. Main article: LL parser. Main article: metacompiler.

Main article: Just-in-time compilation. Main article: Intermediate language. Main article: Code generation compiler. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Computers Then and Now. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, 15 1 :1—7, January. Hart and M. Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 29 May Practical Translators for LR k Languages. PhD dissertation, MIT,